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4、Farewell Address 課程簡介
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Farewell Address (George Washington)

告別演說 (喬治.華盛頓)

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the state, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally.

    我曾明白告訴你們,在國家內部存在各種黨派的危險,特別說到那種基於地區偏見而形成不同派別的危險。現在讓我從更全面的角度,以最鄭重的態度,概括地提醒你們注意結黨之風的有害影響。

This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but in those of the popular form it is seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst enemy.

    不幸的是,這種風氣和我們的天性分不開,植根於人類最強烈的感情之中。它以不同形式存在於所有政府內,只是或多或少地受到壓抑或控制而已。但是,在民主形式的政府裏,它滋生蔓長,確實成為危害這些政府的最大敵人。

The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual, and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation on the ruins of public liberty.

    派系紛爭自然產生報復情緒,這在不同國家不同時代曾造成可怖的暴行。這種報復情緒使兩派你勝我敗的交替執政成為更暴烈的暴政;最終還會導致產生一種更為正式的永久性獨裁暴政。因為派別紛爭帶來了動盪和苦難,使人心逐漸傾向於在某一個人的絕對權力中尋求保障與安寧。遲早有某個當權流系的首腦,因能力更大或運氣比其他的競爭對手更好,會利用上述普遍情緒破壞公眾自由,以達到個人升擢的目的。

Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.

    即使事情不致於發展至上述極端的地步(不過,我們不該完全忽視這種極端的可能),黨派風氣經常不斷引起禍患,也足以使明智的民族出於責任感和自身利益的考慮而去防範它、抑制它了。

It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which find a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passion. Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another.

    黨派風氣往往使各種公共會議不能集中討論問題,削弱公共行政機構的功能。它使國民為毫無根據的嫉恨和虛驚所困擾;它煽動一派仇恨另一派,有時甚至挑起騷動與叛亂。它打開方便之門,使國家受外國影響與腐蝕。通過黨派情緒的渠道,這類事物輕易找到打進政府的入口。這樣,一個國家的政策和意志便會為另一國家的政策意志所左右。

There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government, and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose; and there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be by force of public opinion to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume.

    某些人認為自由國家存在黨派,有助於監督檢查政府行政,並可保持自由精神。這種意志在一定限度內可能是對的。在君主政體的政府中,愛國者對黨派精神如不是特別喜愛,至少也可以容忍。然而,對於民主性質或純粹由選舉產生的政府,黨派風氣卻不宜提倡,因為這些政府自有足夠的黨派精神達到每一有益的目的。問題倒在於黨派風氣常有過分的危險,我們倒應該努力以公眾輿論壓力去緩和它,抑制它。一堆未熄滅的火須得大家始終小心戒備,防止它燃成熊熊烈燄,否則,它不僅不能使人取暖,反會燒燬一切。

 

台灣商務印書館 石幼珊 中譯

 

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